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In this study, MPS (both during basal postabsorptive conditions and during mixed meal intake) was measured before and after three months of exercise training in obese, 65-80 y old men and women. At the beginning of the study (before training) the basal, postabsorptive MPS rate was significantly greater in women than in men, whereas the meal-induced increase in MPS was greater in men than in women .
INTRODUCTION It is well known that the ingestion of protein or amino acids results in increased plasma amino acid levels (hyperaminoacidemia) that stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and that resistance exercise increases this feeding-induced stimulation of MPS even more (Breen & Phillips, 2012).
Various stimuli have been proposed to be responsible for the feeding-induced stimulation of MPS, including insulin mediated via changes in local blood flow (Fujita et al., 2006b, 2007), and leucine via stimulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (m TORC1) (Crozier et al., 2005).
In rodents, the administration of female sex steroids lowers MPS and thus may inhibit muscle growth (Toth et al., 2001).
What is unclear, at least in humans, is whether male or female sex steroids within a normal physiological range exert an effect on muscle protein turnover.
Many studies of the regulation of MPS in humans have been carried out in young men and a variety of nutritional and contractile variables have been studied.