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Similarly, all vertebrate cytochrome c should be equally different from the yeast protein." For example, the difference between the cytochrome c of a carp and a frog, turtle, chicken, rabbit, and horse is a very constant 13% to 14%.

Similarly, the difference between the cytochrome c of a bacterium and yeast, wheat, moth, tuna, pigeon, and horse ranges from 64% to 69%.

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In phylogenetics, the unrooted model of phylogeny and the strict molecular clock model are two extremes of a continuum.

Despite their dominance in phylogenetic inference, it is evident that both are biologically unrealistic and that the real evolutionary process lies between these two extremes.

The benchmarks for determining the mutation rate are often fossil or archaeological dates.

The molecular clock was first tested in 1962 on the haemoglobin protein variants of various animals, and is commonly used in molecular evolution to estimate times of speciation or radiation.

Necessary input data are a rooted phylogenetic tree with edge lengths (internode lengths) approximately corresponding to the number of substitutions between the nodes.

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